Volume Four Issue one

Title: Masthead
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
File: MastheadV4I4 (8 downloads)
Title: Mental Distress, Stigma and Help-Seeking in the Evangelical Christian Church: Study Protocol
Volume:  4
Issue: 1
Abstract: Background: A large body of research supports the central importance of religious and spiritual belief systems for personal wellbeing. Many religious communities hold beliefs about the causes and suitable treatments for mental health conditions, which can influence how an individual experiences their mental health, as well as the likelihood of seeking professional or religious help for their psychological difficulties. Research suggests that this is especially the case for evangelical Christians, who are more likely to view mental illness as caused by demons, sin, diminished faith, or generational curses. Whilst recent qualitative evidence suggests that such beliefs can hold negative effects for evangelical Christians, there is little research exploring quantitative pathways. Objective: This study protocol paper presents a pilot study, which aims to explore how beliefs about the causes of mental illness, religious fundamentalism, help-seeking, stigma and mental health are related in evangelical Christian communities. Whilst there is some existing research exploring this area, most is drawn from a US context. The findings of the present study, therefore, will uniquely apply to a UK context. Study Design: A quantitative design is proposed, which will involve statistical analyses such as correlation, regression, moderation and path analysis, to explore associations between these variables. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are discussed, with awareness of characteristics of our target sample.
Pages: 1-9
Keywords: Protocol; Christianity; religious beliefs; stigma; mental health; help-seeking; evangelical
Author: Christopher E. M. Lloyd & Yasuhiro Kotera
File: Mental Distress, Stigma and Help-Seeking (6 downloads)
Title: Effects of Mindfulness on Anxiety in a Sample of College Students
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Abstract: This semi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of mindfulness training on reducing anxiety in a sample of college students. Thirty- three participants attended six weekly mindfulness sessions and participated in pre- tests and post-tests for their mindfulness and anxiety levels. The findings showed a significant increase in mindfulness between the pre and post-testing based on the paired sample t-test, t(29) = -5.78, p < .001) and a significant decrease in anxiety between both tests t(29) = 6.44, p < .001. The effect sizes for mindfulness (d = 1.06) and anxiety (d = 1.14) exceeded Cohen’s convention for a large effect (d = .80). The research findings show that mindfulness training sessions can successfully reduce anxiety, inviting colleges and universities to offer workshops and mindfulness courses to reduce stress and anxiety in their student populations.
Pages: 10-19
Keywords: mindfulness, anxiety, experimental design, mindfulness training, college students
Authors:  Aqeel Saeid, Arthur Lockhart & Zoe Paul
File: Mindfulness on Anxiety (5 downloads)
Title: Clinical-dynamic features of affective disorders comorbid with alcohol dependence
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Abstract: Introduction: The comorbidity of affective disorders (AD) and alcohol dependence (AlcD) worsens the prognosis and efficacy of therapy, exacerbates non-compliance in patients, and lowers their level of social adjustment. Objective: To study the influence of AlcD on the clinical-dynamic characteristics of AD. Material and Methods: Two groups of patients were examined and compared based on the Affective States Department of Mental Health Research Institute (Tomsk, Russia). The study group included 32 patients with AD and comorbid AlcD, and the comparison group included 31 AD patients without comorbid addictive pathology. The groups were matched on sex, age, and AD, without any statistically significant (α = 0.05) differences in those variables. The Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS- 17), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), and the Social Adaptation Self- evaluation Scale (SASS) were used. Results: Compared to the group without comorbidity, the group of patients with comorbid AD and AlcD had more frequent suicide attempts in their medical history, a higher level of anxiety according to HARS, more severe disorders according to CGI-S, and more impairment of social adaptation according to SASS. Patients with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) also experienced a larger number of affective episodes per year. Conclusion: AlcD comorbid with AD affects clinical-dynamic indicators and levels of social adjustment in patients.
Pages: 20-31
Keywords: alcohol; affective disorders; concurrent disorders
Authors: Vasilieva, German G. Simutkin, Evgeny D. Schastnyy & Nikolay A. Bokhan
File:  Clinical-dynamic affective disorders comorbid with alcohol dependence (7 downloads)
Title: The Psychosocial Impact of Instagram on Female Body Image: Literature Review and Proposal
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Abstract: Instagram is one of the most popular photo-sharing social networking platforms used by the younger population. However, research exploring the socio- psychological impact of this platform on younger populations is scarce. It is particularly important to assess how Instagram affects perceptions of body image in female populations who make up the majority of Instagram users. Accordingly, this study will seek to explore the impact engagement with Instagram has on female body image through qualitative semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with young female individuals aged eleven to twenty-five years over a period of three months. The findings from the interviews will be analysed using the interpretative phenomenological analysis framework and disseminated to schools, university teachers, education researchers, health care professionals and social media platforms. We believe the findings from this study will help protect young female populations from experiencing negative impact on their body image via Instagram.
Pages: 32-43
Keywords: Mental health; Psychosocial processes; Social Media; Instagram; Body Image; Qualitative research
Authors: Eve Knowles, Yasuhiro Kotera & Greta Kaluzeviciute
File: Psychosocial Impact of Instagram on Female Body Image (6 downloads)
Title: A Qualitative Exploration of CBT and Psychodynamic Therapists’ Views, Experiences and Perceptions of Integrating Different Therapeutic Modalities into their Private Practice with Adult Clients: Study Protocol.
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Abstract: Background: CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) and psychodynamic psychotherapy are two most frequently used therapeutic modalities in private and public clinical practice. CBT is currently considered to be a ‘gold standard’ therapy, culminating in a wide scale training and dissemination of research. More recently, psychodynamic psychotherapy has also amassed increasing systematic research, yielding significant longitudinal outcomes. However, the co-existence of the two therapeutic modalities is not without controversies. Although few authors in psychotherapy suggested that CBT and psychodynamic psychotherapy should be viewed as complementary rather than dichotomous paradigms, little is known about how concepts and techniques from these two different approaches are integrated (if at all) by therapists in private practice. Objective: This study protocol paper presents a pilot study, which aims to qualitatively explore how CBT therapists experience and make sense of psychodynamic concepts and vice versa in private practice. Our study is particularly interested in how therapists conceptualise psychodynamic and CBT concepts, and whether they might integrate techniques from different therapeutic modalities in their practice formally or informally. We anticipate that the findings will be relevant for further theoretical and clinical recommendations on how CBT and psychodynamic psychotherapies can be integrated in a pragmatic manner to address idiosyncratic patient treatment needs. Study Design: A qualitative survey method will be used to explore how qualified BABCP accredited CBT therapists and BPC accredited psychodynamic practitioners understand, perceive and, potentially, integrate, psychodynamic and CBT principles in private practice. The data collected will be analysed using thematic analysis in order to construct themes
and generate implications for therapeutic integration and practice. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are examined, with sensitivity towards our target sample.
Pages: 44-53
Keywords: Protocol; CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy); Psychodynamic Psychotherapy; therapeutic integration; private clinical practice; application of clinical concepts
Authors: Greta Kaluzeviciute & Christopher, E.M. Lloyd
File: Qualitative Exploration of CBT (8 downloads)
Title: Mapping Stories of Cause and Cure Using Story Stem Completion: Mental Distress in the Evangelical Christian Community. A Study Protocol.
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Abstract: Background: Recent qualitative evidence suggests Christian communities can hold specific religious and cultural beliefs regarding mental illness, which can influence how psychological illness is experienced, perceived and managed on both an idiographic and community level. There are, however, no studies which explore the implicit wider social discourses and narratives Christians may draw upon when making sense of mental illness. Objective: This study protocol paper presents a novel pilot study, which aims to collect qualitative data using story completion. Study design: Story completion is an innovative qualitative method which presents participants with a fictional story stem, or cue, and asks participants to continue the story in their own words. This study will explore evangelical Christians perceptions, representations and views of depression (story stem 1) and self-harm (story stem 2), as well as, the wider social, religious and cultural narratives they utilise. Analysis: A critical realist informed thematic analysis will be carried out on the data. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are examined, with specific cognisance towards characteristics of the target sample.
Pages: 54-61
Keywords: Protocol; qualitative; story completion; Christianity; religious beliefs; stigma; aetiology; mental health; help-seeking
Authors: Christopher, E.M. Lloyd
File: Mapping Stories of Cause and Cure (7 downloads)
Title: Comorbid Relationships in the Formation of Addictive Behaviour and Affective Symptoms in Adolescents.
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Abstract: The prevalence of substance use, negative attitudes towards it, and emotional issues associated with it in adolescents is a problem that affects their future health. Objective. To study the features of chemical addiction development in adolescent students in comprehensive and special education schools, and to determine the nature of the relationship between emerging addictions and the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Materials and Methods. A sample of 421 adolescents between age 12 and 17 years (41.6% girls, 58.4% boys) were recruited. The Self-Compiled Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Children’s Depression Inventory Scale (CDI) were used. Data collection was carried out between 2015 to 2017. Results. Overall, 26.4% of the students smoked, 15.2% drank alcohol, and 2.9% used drugs. The frequency of psychoactive substances use did not significantly differ by gender. Comparison of students from comprehensive and special education schools on the use of certain types of substance use revealed differences only in smoking, which was more frequent in special needs schools for both boys and girls. A high risk of developing depression was found in 8% of students (15.4% of girls and 2.8% of boys). Among girls, there was a significantly higher rate of alcohol use for those at high risk of depression than those without this risk. It is suggested that affective symptoms interrelate with the emerging addictive behaviour in girls. Discussion. Psychological features and environmental conditions affecting the development of chemical addictions (alcohol, nicotine, and drugs) in adolescents are discussed. Addictive behaviour is considered as a coping mechanism among adolescent when facing social challenges.
Pages: 62-76
Keywords: comorbidity, addictive behaviour, substance use, risk of depression, adolescents
Authors: Bairma, A., Dashieva, Irina, S. Karaush & Irina, E. Kupriyanova
File: Comorbid Relationships Addictive Behaviour and Affective Symptoms (7 downloads)