Issue Two


Title: Table of Contents
Journal Issue:  2
Authors: Masood Zangeneh
File: Table of Contents
Title: Salirophilia and other co-occurring paraphilias in a middle-aged male: A case study
Journal Issue: 2
Abstract: Salirophilia is a paraphilic sexual fetish in which individuals experience sexual arousal from soiling or disheveling the object of their desire. To date, there has been no academic or clinical research into salirophilia, and there are no published peer-reviewed papers – not even a single case study. Therefore, this paper presents the first case study account of a salirophile, a 58-year-old heterosexual male. The areas of interest that were examined included his background relating to childhood experiences of sex, other cooccurring paraphilic interests, and a detailed overview of his engagement in salirophilic acts. It was found that his interest in salirophilic acts dated back to his childhood, and based on the account given, the behavior is most likely explained by classical conditioning. It was also found that there were many other paraphilic behaviors that co-occurred with salirophilia, including sadism, urophilia, coprophilia, and zoophilia. The case study highlights the importance of online methods in the recruitment of individuals and the collection of data with sexually paraphilic behavior for academic study.
Keywords: salirophile, case, classical conditioning.
Authors: Mark D. Griffiths
File: Salirophilia and other co-occurring paraphilias in a middle-aged male: A case study (36 downloads)
Title: Associations between probable anxiety and mood disorder and measures of alcohol and cannabis use in young, middle-aged and older adults.
Journal Issue: 2
Abstract: This study examined the associations of cannabis use, alcohol use and alcohol problems with probable anxiety and mood disorders (AMD) in young, middle-aged and older adults. Method: Data are based on the CAMH Monitor, an ongoing cross-sectional telephone survey of Ontario adults aged 18 years and older. For the purposes of the current study, a merged dataset from the years 2001 through 2009 inclusive was separated into three individual datasets: 18-34 year olds (n=4,211), 35-54 year olds (n=7,874), and 55 years of age and older (n=6,778). The survey included the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, which provides a measure of probable AMD for the general population. Logistic regression analyses examined the odds of probable AMD in three age groups associated with alcohol measures (number of drinks per day and alcohol problems (AUDIT 8+)) and cannabis use, while controlling for self-reported physical health, religious service attendance, and demographic factors. Due to listwise deletion, the logistic regression models were based on reduced samples. Results: Lifetime cannabis use and past year cannabis use predicted probable AMD in young and middle-aged adults, but only lifetime cannabis use predicted probable AMD among older adults. Alcohol problems predicted probable AMD among middle aged and older adults, but not among younger adults. No consistent link between recent alcohol consumption and probable AMD was observed. Conclusion: These analyses suggest that the impact of alcohol and cannabis use and problems on probable AMD may differ across age groups.
Keywords: cannabis, anxiety, mood disorders, Ontario, AUDIT.
Authors: Robert E. Mann, Wah Lap Cheung, Gina Stoduto, Christine M. Wickens, Anca R. Ialomiteanu, Chloe Docherty, Roxana Florica, Justin Matheson, Lily Y. Li, André J. McDonald
File: Associations between probable anxiety and mood disorder and measures of alcohol and cannabis (39 downloads)
Title:  Technology and mutual aid for problem gambling: the past and the future.
Journal Issue: 2
Abstract: This paper offers a cursory account of the use of technology and online services by 12-Step peer support groups with a particular focus on support services for problem gamblers. We examine the history of peer support groups and examine the extent to which they have embraced newer technologies. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) has little direct involvement in on-line support. However, GA members operating independently of GA have provided some pioneering peer support. In this paper, we gathered information about GA’s presence online through a cursory literature review, examination of websites, and three semistructured interviews with key informants: two longstanding GA members and one non-member who is nonetheless very active in employing up to date technology to coordinate recovery options for problem gamblers. The benefits of online peer support for problem gamblers is discussed. Accessibility is one example, as some could be available 24 hours a day each day of the week. Another advantage is that many young adults and adolescents favor online options. This also applies to online gamblers. The Internet options we have uncovered are run mostly by GA members, typically without official GA sanction.
Keywords: Gamblers Anonymous, online services, accessibility.
Authors: Peter Ferentzy, Sherald Sanchez, Nigel E. Turner
File: Technology and mutual aid for problem gambling: the past and the future. (38 downloads)
Title: Perseverance and addiction processes: Clues to identify exercise addicts
Journal Issue: 2
Abstract: Physical activity is one of the most important resources used to promote health habits and well-being through a controlled and regular practice. Nevertheless, it is increasingly clear that in the area of sports, cases of excessive practice are becoming more prevalent, therefore normalizing the appearance of addictive behaviors. Previous studies on this topic highlight the importance of personality and the presence of different traits in identifying the appearance of this behavioral pattern. Taking into account all this information and the meaning of grit (perseverance and passion), one of the most emerging traits in the field of personality, we selected a sample of CrossFit and endurance sports practitioners (133 athletes; 34.59% women and 65.41% men) to understand the possible association between exercise addiction and grit, which could be affected by some indicators such as ambition and satisfaction in this relationship. A t-test, correlation analysis (Pearson), and linear regression (backward method) showed that the factor of Perseverance is positively correlated with addiction, and the other factor of grit, Consistency of Interest, did not present any kind of relationship. This seems to indicate that Perseverance is a trigger for addiction, while Consistency may help to self-regulate this behavior. In addition, younger athletes showed higher indicators of ambition to achieve their goals and a higher risk of exercise addiction, whereas gaining more experience with sports could facilitate the development of grit.
Keywords: sports, exercise, CrossFit.
Authors: Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. Nogueira, A., & Lorenzo, O.
File: Perseverance and addiction processes: Clues to identify exercise addicts (35 downloads)
Title: The relationship between problem gambling and substance use among American adolescents
Journal Issue: 2
Abstract: Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased engagement in risky behaviors, including substance use and gambling. Previous research has consistently shown an increased risk of problem gambling among people with substance use disorders, however few studies have addressed the differences in problem gambling across the various substance types. Using data from the 2018 Alcohol, Drug Addiction and Mental Health Services (ADAMHS) Board/Wood County Educational Service Center Survey on Alcohol and Other Drug Use among junior high and high school adolescents in Wood County, Ohio, this study sought to understand the relationship and comorbidity levels between various substances used and problem gambling among American adolescents. Further, the current study aimed to test the effects of substance use on the likelihood of being identified as a problem gambler. Results indicated that individuals at-risk or reporting gambling problems were significantly more likely to regularly smoke marijuana, ingest painkillers, consume alcohol, and engage in binge drinking. Additionally, adolescents who regularly consumed alcohol or painkillers were twice as likely to be identified as being at-risk for a gambling problem. This study sheds light on the importance of assessing for comorbid addictive disorders in order to optimize treatment options for adolescents.
Keywords: Gambling, risky behaviors, substance use, adolescents.
Authors: Loredana A. Marchica, Tina Giordano, William Ivoska, Jeffrey L. Derevensky
File: The relationship between problem gambling and substance use among American adolescents (39 downloads)
Title: The Prevalence, Communicability and Co-Occurrence of Inverted Hallucinations: An Overlooked Global Public Health Concern
Journal Issue: 2
Abstract: While scientific understanding concerning the role of biological pathogenic agents in the transmission of communicable diseases has increased markedly in recent decades, the possibility of a psychological pathogenic agent that underlies the transmission of a number of key global public health concerns has largely been overlooked. The present paper identifies inverted hallucinations as a novel category of hallucination that not only reflect a key public health concern in their own right, but also appear to play an active role in the gradual transmission of diseases traditionally deemed to be non-communicable, such as mental health problems, obesity, and social media addiction. More specifically, the present paper delineates the assumptions and indicative empirical support underlying inverted hallucination theory as well as the characteristic features, functional consequences, prevalence, communicability, and co-occurrence of inverted hallucinations in the general population. Inverted hallucinations appear to be both globally prevalent and communicable, and are estimated to affect the average person on at least an occasional basis. Inverted hallucinations cause individuals to succumb to states of mind wandering that distorts their perception of what is happening in the present moment and increases their susceptibility to other deleterious health conditions. Moreover, inverted hallucinations appear to reflect a key overlooked public health need that not only stunt human potential and quality of life but also pose a risk to the wellbeing of the population globally
Keywords: inverted hallucinations, co-occurrence, public health.
Authors: William Van Gordon, Supakyada Sapthiang, Déborah Ducasse, & Edo Shonin
File: The Prevalence, Communicability and Co-Occurrence of Inverted Hallucinations (36 downloads)
Title: Screening for comorbidity of psychiatric and substance use disorders using the Standard for Clinicians’ Interview in Psychiatry (SCIP)
Journal Issue: 2
Abstract: The Standard for Clinicians’ Interview in Psychiatry (SCIP) is a clinician-administered valid and reliable semi-structured diagnostic interview for adult psychiatric disorders. The SCIP Screening Module includes 30 questions and covers 18 adult psychiatric disorders: generalized anxiety, panic, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive, posttraumatic, major depressive, dysthymic, bipolar, schizoaffective, schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating, alcohol use, drug use, and somatic symptom disorders. The SCIP Screening Module has been used in clinical assessments, was found to have high sensitivity as a screening tool in a primary-care population, and has the potential to be useful in screening for mental disorders in a general population.
Keywords: SCIP, diagnostic interview, psychiatric disorders.
Authors: Ahmed Aboraya
File: Screening for comorbidity of psychiatric and substance use disorders (36 downloads)

Issue One

Title: Table of Contents
Journal Issue:  1
File: Table of Contents
Title: Editorial
Journal Issue:  1
Abstract: Welcome
Authors:  Masood Zangeneh
File: Editorial- Issue One (36 downloads)
Title:    The Relationship Between Internet Addiction and Problem Behaviors Amongst Hong Kong Adolescents: A Three-Year
Longitudinal Study
Journal Issue:    1
Abstract:  Both Internet addiction and adolescent risk behaviors are worldwide public health concerns. Unfortunately, their relationship is grossly under-researched. Adopting a longitudinal research design, this study examined the longitudinal association between Internet addiction and problem behaviors among adolescents in Hong Kong and tested whether early Internet addiction predicted later adolescent problem behaviors. A total of 2,669 junior secondary school students completed three waves of questionnaires testing their Internet addiction behavior and other problem behaviors including drug use, self-harm, suicidal behaviors, delinquency behaviors, and compensated dating. Chi-square analysis showed that Internet addicted students had a high probability to display these problem behaviors at each wave. Logistic regression analyses suggest that early Internet addiction was a precursor of later problem behaviors among adolescents. The results shed light on the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent problem behaviors, and provide reference for prevention and intervention of these problem behaviors.
Keywords: Internet addiction, adolescent risk behaviors, comorbidity, Chinese adolescents
Authors:  Daniel Tan-lei Shek, Lu Yu, Wenyu Chai
File: Relationship Between Internet Addiction and Problem Behaviors Amongst Hong Kong Adolescents (33 downloads)
Title:  Gambling, Problem Gambling, and Attitudes Toward Gambling in a Sample of College Students
Journal Issue:  1
Abstract:  The present study explored gambling prevalence and attitudes toward gambling among college students. A sample of 274 Humber College students participated in an online survey from September 15th to December 15th, 2013. The survey included a scale to measure problem gambling as well as questions regarding attitudes toward gambling. The study found that 9.9% of college students were classified as moderate problem gamblers and 2.2% were classified as having a severe gambling problem. In terms of attitudes, 59.9 % of participants believed that gambling is morally wrong, and 69% felt that gambling does more harm than good; however, 81% believed that all types of gambling should be legal. For the harm and morality questions, problem gamblers had more negative attitudes towards gambling. The study also indicated significantly higher scores on the PGSI/CPGI for males in comparison to females. The results suggest that problem gambling is more common amongst college students than in the general adult population.
Keywords: problem gambling, college students, morality, views on legality
Authors:  Aqeel Saeid, Slobodan Petrovski, Kathryn Shea, Jing Shi, Peter Ferentzy, Sarah Cool, Nigel Turner
File: Gambling, Problem Gambling, and Attitudes (36 downloads)
Title: The rise of opioid overdose: Is availability of Naloxone within the community the answer we need?
Journal Issue: 1
Abstract: Rates of substance use and overdose are continually on the rise within our communities. Recent events highlight the increase rate of opioid overdose in particular and reflect current trends of a two-fold increase in such an event. Opioids are problematic as they can be prescribed legally or gained illegally. Symptoms of opioid overdose can be reversed with the provision of naloxone. Rising prices for naloxone may prevent organizations from carrying large quantities of it, which is problematic given recent events. As there is no typical presentation of opioid addiction or those with concurrent mental health issues, the influence or effect of each on the individual and with each other should be examined in their entirety. Different types of treatment are examined, as well as several of the strengths and limitations of ea
Keywords: Opioid use, naloxone, treatment models
Authors: Thalia MacMillan
File: The rise of opioid overdose (26 downloads)
Title: Shame to Resilience: Trauma-informed Perspectives on Maternal Substance Use
Journal Issue:  1
Abstract: Objective. The objective of this article is to discuss the multifaceted complexity of maternal substance use and trauma histories. Methods. Overview of the impact of opioid use in maternal age women is provided, as well as its impact on families. Two case examples are presented to highlight the major barriers these women encounter in entering treatment. Results. The use of two theories, shame-resilience (SRT) and self-determination (SDT) is also discussed as a possible framework to engage pregnant women and promote recovery and healing from trauma histories. Conclusion. Providing trauma-informed, gender-specific treatment using these theoretical frameworks has the potential for transformational growth and recovery for this multifarious population. Implications. To provide the necessary comprehensive, coordinated, and compassionate care from multiple disciplines, continued training on trauma-informed, genderspecific treatment is recommended.
Keywords: Resilience, substance Use, opioid, maternal.
Authors: Heather Howard
File: Shame to Resilience (37 downloads)
Title:  The Impact of Gambling on Families in Hong Kong: The Role of Family Functioning
Journal Issue:  1
Abstract: Despite substantial evidence that problem gambling is associated with a wide range of family difficulties, limited effort has been devoted to studying the negative impacts on family members as a result of problem gambling, particularly in Chinese communities. It was hypothesized that significant negative relationships would be found between family member impacts and family functioning; and significant positive relationship would be found between family functioning and health and psychological wellbeing. A total of 103 family members of problem gamblers who sought help from Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Even Centre in Hong Kong were interviewed. Results showed that a majority of family members were partners or ex-partners of the gambler with low or no income. Family functioning was negatively correlated to gambling-related family impacts and psychological distress, and was positively correlated to health and psychological wellbeing. The results provide preliminary support for patterns of family functioning that could protect families from negative impacts of addictions. It is suggested that a culturally-sensitive treatment modality that focuses on enhancing family functioning will facilitate improvement in gambling related family impacts.
Keywords: Family Functioning, Impact of Problem Gambling, Families, Chinese, Hong Kong
Authors: Elda Mei Lo Chan, Nicki A. Dowling, Alun C. Jackson, Daniel Tan-lei Shek
File: The Impact of Gambling on Families in Hong Kong (32 downloads)
Title:  Binge Drinking among Residential Program Youth in Israel: Toward an Understanding of Predictors for Policy and Prevention
Journal Issue: 1
Abstract: Alcohol use is attributed to about 25% of the total deaths among youth and young adults. Harmful alcohol use among youth has been overshadowed by the preoccupation with widespread use of other substances including cannabis and prescription drugs. A crosssectional cohort of 1,327 residential program and high school youth were compared regarding binge drinking habits and risk factors. Data was collected from 2004 to 2016. Residential program youth binge drinking predictors were substance abuse within the last month, alcohol availability, causing harm to others (e.g., fighting, stealing and possessing a weapon), unstructured day activity, and being a passenger in a car where the driver had been drinking. Binge drinking predictors among high school were smoking within the last month and alcohol availability. Effective risk behavior prevention involves a wide range of factors including the need to control alcohol access among those under the legal drinking age. An eco-systems approach involving youth and people they are in contact with is a viable prevention approach. However, conflicting personal and economic factors regarding alcohol use, among others, are a daunting barrier to overcome.
Keywords: Binge drinking, cannabis, prescription drugs, residential program, high school
Authors: Richard Isralowitz, Alexander Reznik, Masood Zangeneh
File: Binge Drinking among Residential Program Youth in Israel (24 downloads)
Title: Common Myths in the Behavioral Addiction Field
Journal Issue:  1
Abstract: There is no shortage of controversy and debates within the field of behavioral addiction. In this paper, five myths are outlined concerning various behavioral addictions. These are: (i) behavioral addictions can occur concurrently, (ii) addictions such as videogame addiction are associated with other comorbidities and are therefore not separate disorders, (iii) ‘addictions’ are equivalent to ‘disorders’ in DSM-5 and ICD-11 nomenclature, (iv) very excessive behaviors are addictions, and (v) socially condoned excessive activities and activities engaged in willfully cannot be classed as behavioral addictions. It is argued that views based on these myths depend upon how behavioral addictions are defined in the first place. It is concluded that any behavior which has severe and longstanding clinical impairment and comprising core components of addiction (i.e., salience, conflict, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, and relapse) should be conceptualized as a behavioral addiction.
Keywords: Behavioral addiction, DSM-5, ICD-10, myth
Authors:  Mark D. Griffiths
File: Common Myths in the Behavioral Addiction Field (30 downloads)