Volume Three-Issue Two

Title: Table of Contents
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
File: masthead (48 downloads)
Title: Concurrent Disorders and Digital Challenges in Palestine
Volume:  3
Issue: 2
Abstract:
Pages: 1-6
Keywords: Digital Media, Addiction, Mental Health, Palestine
Author: Fayez Azez Mahamid
File: concurrent disorders and digital challenges in palestine (64 downloads)
Title: Tobacco and energy drink, emerging health risk among Palestinian adolescent females, a cross-sectional study: Call for action
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 in the West Bank, Palestine to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with tobacco smoking and energy drink (ED) intake among 10th grade female students. 382 participants were randomly selected; 16.2% were current tobacco smokers (18.1% cigarette smokers, 36.1% waterpipe smokers), 41.4% were current ED consumers, 29.7% were current tobacco smokers and ED users,15.7% intended to smoke tobacco, and 29.2% intended to consume ED. Most of the adolescents (93.3%) were knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking cigarettes, but not as informed surrounding waterpipe (45.7%) and ED (36.2%) risks. The majority of girls disagreed with banning waterpipe (83.4%) and ED (74.3%). Curiosity was the most frequent motivation for use. Girls who consumed ED were more likely to smoke cigarettes (Odds Ratio (OR:7.2)) and waterpipe (OR:7.6) than non-users. The mean initiation age was 12.6 years for EDs intake, and was associated with the initiation of cigarette smoking (13.6 years) and waterpipe smoking (14.0 years). This study indicates an alarming situation concerning ED intake and tobacco smoking among Palestinian female adolescents. Regular intake of ED was common and strongly associated with tobacco smoking, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including related risk behaviors. Prevention and cessation strategies are recommended.
Pages: 7-18
Keywords: energy drink; tobacco smoking; waterpipe; non-communicable diseases; female adolescents
Authors: Basma Damiri, Hiba Ibrahim, Marah Khalaily, Rawan Mohammad, & Sarah Imwas
File: Tobacco and energy drink & Palestinian adolescent females (37 downloads)
Title: Energy drink consumption among young Palestinians and associated risk factors: Call for action
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Abstract: Objectives: This study was conducted to determine energy drink (ED) consumption and the associated risk factors among Palestinian university students, particularly concerning gender differences. Methods: A crosssectional study was conducted in 2017 across five public universities in the West Bank, Palestine. A selfadministrated questionnaire was distributed between 2100 students to achieve the above objectives. Results: The response rate was high (84.9%), with 1782 students (44.8% males, 55.2% females) completing the questionnaire. The findings indicated that the prevalence of ED intake was high for both lifetime users (66.4%; 83.5% males, 52.3% females) and current users (43.5%; 62.5% males, 31.4% females). Around 82.4% of users had consumed EDs regularly on a daily or weekly basis. Regular consumption of ED was associated with risky behavior, including self-reporting violent behavior, smoking tobacco, alcohol intake, and illicit drug use. Different factors influenced the consumption of ED, including family and social peer pressure, parents’ education levels and relationships, and students’ relationships with their fathers. Consumption was more prevalent among males, working students, and refugees. Common reasons for consuming ED were to increase energy levels, cope with anger, combat sleepiness, and for its taste. Conclusion: The results in this study highlight an alarming situation concerning EDs intake among young Palestinians. They provide insight into the consumption patterns of EDs among university students and shed light on their potential adverse effects. This data can be reviewed when considering regulations over ED and similar products.
Pages: 19-31
Keywords: energy drink, smoking, Palestinians, caffeine intoxication, risk factors
Authors: Basma Damiri, Omar Yaish, Eiad Janini, & Hisham Sandouka
File:  Energy drink consumption among young Palestinian (35 downloads)
Title: Internet addiction among Israeli -Palestinian college students in Israel: Its prevalence and relationship to selected demographic variables
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Abstract: Objectives: The purpose of the current study is to examine the prevalence of internet addiction and its relationship with selected demographic variables among Arab college students in Israel. Methods: This study is based on the correlation between internet addiction and gender, socio-economic status, age, academic achievement, academic degree, and type of residence, and examines the direction and strength of the relationship between internet addiction and these variables. The sample consisted of 500 Israeli-Palestinian students in colleges. Participants’ ages ranged from 19 to 35 (M = 26.8, SD = 4.48). They were chosen through convenience sampling from six colleges in Israel. Results: The findings indicate the sample had higher than average internet addiction. Moreover, significant relationships were found between internet addiction and gender, socio-economic status, age, academic achievement, and academic degree. There were no significant relationships between internet addiction and religion or residence. Conclusion and Implications: Most of the findings in this study align with previous studies, while some do not. Consistent with previous studies, this study found a significant negative correlation between academic achievement and internet addiction, higher levels of internet addiction among younger students in comparison to older students, high levels of internet addiction among males in comparison to females, high levels of internet addiction among first year students, and found no significant differences in internet addiction attributed to religion. However, contrary to prior studies, there was no significant relationship found between internet addiction and residence, and there was a significant difference in internet addiction attributed to socio-economic status with higher values associated with a low socio-economic status. There is a need for future studies to test the interaction of these variables in predicting internet addiction among students.
Pages: 32-44
Keywords: Internet addiction, Demographic variables, Israeli Palestinian college students
Authors: Qutaiba Agbaria & Dana Bdier
File: Internet addiction among Israeli -Palestinian (42 downloads)
Title: Aggressiveness and life satisfaction as predictors for video game addiction among Palestinian adolescents
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Abstract: Previous studies demonstrate that life satisfaction and aggression could be predictive factors for video game addiction. Despite these findings, the relationship between these factors and video game addiction has not been examined among Palestinian adolescents. This study is the first to explore the relationship between video game addiction and life satisfaction and aggression among adolescents (12-18 years) in Palestine. The sample was comprised of 560 school students. Findings revealed that video game addiction scores were negatively associated with life satisfaction and positively associated with aggression. Further studies are needed in order to encourage protective and therapeutic strategies for video game addiction.
Pages: 45-53
Keywords: Life satisfaction, Aggressiveness, Video game addiction, Palestinian adolescents
Authors: Fayez Azez Mahamid & Dana Bdier
File: Aggressiveness and life satisfaction video game addiction among Palestinians (35 downloads)
Title: Perceived stress and self-regulation as predictors for Internet addiction in Palestinian youth
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Abstract:  Objectives: The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between perceived stress, selfregulation, and Internet addiction in Palestinian Youth. Methods: A correlational study was conducted to examine the relationship between study variables. A random sampling technique was used to recruit participants from AnNajah National University (ANNU). 556 students participated, including 178 males and 378 females. Results: The findings showed a statistically significant positive correlation between Internet addiction and perceived stress (r = .24, p < .01); the regression analysis for predicting Internet addiction found that perceived stress contributes in a way that was statistically significant towards explaining variance in Internet addiction. Results also showed a statistically significant negative correlation between Internet addiction and self-regulation (r = -.23, p < .01). Conclusion: The study indicated that participants scored within the mild level of Internet addiction. While Internet addiction was positively correlated with perceived stress and negatively correlated with self-regulation, perceived stress was also negatively correlated with self-regulation. Further research into this relationship may be critical in devising interventions to reduce stress and increase self-regulation to combat Internet addiction among Palestinian youth.
Pages: 54-66
Keywords: Internet addiction, Perceived stress, Self-regulation, Palestine
Authors: Fayez Azez Mahamid & Amjed Abojedi
File: Perceived stress and self-regulation as predictors for Internet addiction (46 downloads)
Title: Depression and Anxiety: Relationships with Internet Addiction in Palestine
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Abstract: Objective: Internet addiction (IA) has been positively identified in Palestinian university students, with rates far above students of similar ages in other countries and settings (Mahamid & Berte, 2018). Despite this consistent finding, the psychological mechanism behind IA in this unique population is unclear. This study was initiated to provide a more in-depth analysis of the relationship between symptoms of depression, anxiety and excessive addictive internet use patterns. Method: The study included a sample of 544 university students from An-Najah National University (ANNU) in Nablus, Palestine, reflecting a normalized cross section of the population. Measures of excessive and addictive patterns of use were measured by the Internet Addiction Scale (Young, 2012), while symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (Taylor, 1953). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Scale (Beck, 1996). Results: Findings revealed that, in general, excessive and addictive patterns of internet use were prevalent among the population, with the majority of subjects reaching indicative of Internet addiction. Anxiety was also found to be of concern throughout the population, while depression was less significant. The relationship between the variables of addictive Internet use, depression, and anxiety were found to be significantly correlated. Conclusion: The results of this study assist in identifying and analyzing the relationships between mental health symptomology and addictive behaviors, specifically Internet addiction in high stress living environments where other addictive outlets (alcohol, illegal substances, gambling, and sexual promiscuity, etc.) may be unavailable. Further work that attempts to understand the chronological development of these behaviors and symptoms of Internet addiction will enable professionals to determine the causal or trajectory relationships between anxiety, depression, and Internet use.
Pages: 67-77
Keywords: Internet Addiction, Depression, Anxiety, Palestine
Authors: Fayez Azez Mahamid & Denise Ziya Bert
File:  Depression and Anxiety: Relationships with Internet Addiction (28 downloads)
Title: Internet addiction and posttraumatic stress disorder in Palestinian Adolescents
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between Internet addiction and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of school students in the West Bank of Palestine (N = 524). The severity of impairment caused by excessive Internet use was evaluated using Young’s (2012) Internet Addiction Test, while Mahamid’s PTSD scale (2013) was applied to examine the degree of PTSD among the study sample. The findings of this study showed a statistically significant positive correlation between PTSD symptoms and Internet addiction, which can have a significant impact on adolescents’ personal growth. Children and adolescents with PTSD symptoms require intensive follow-up and special care to prevent the development of Internet addiction.
Pages: 78-87
Keywords: Internet addiction, Posttraumatic stress disorders, Palestinian adolescents
Authors: Ahmed Ibrahim Mansour, & Ayman Mahmud Muamar
File: Internet addiction and posttraumatic stress disorder in Palestinian Adolescents (66 downloads)
Title: Cyberbullying and Internet addiction among Palestinian Adolescents
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Abstract: The current study aims to identify the correlation between cyberbullying behavior and Internet Addiction (IA) among Palestinian adolescents. The study sample consists of 500 participants, selected using simple random methods, from five schools in the northern part of the West Bank, Palestine. Results indicated that a level of IA among the study sample was in part due to frequent improper use (69.67%), and the degree of cyberbullying behavior was on a moderate level (66.83%). Results also revealed a statistically significant positive correlation between IA and cyberbullying behavior (r =.23, p < .01). No significant differences were found in IA and cyberbullying behavior across gender and grade level of participants.
Pages: 88-98
Keywords: Internet Addiction (IA), Cyberbullying behavior, Palestinian adolescents
Author: Emad Abu Al-rob
File: Cyberbullying and Internet addiction among Palestinian Adolescents (31 downloads)
Title: Internet Addiction and Life Styles in Palestinian University Students
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Abstract: The current study aimed to test the correlation between Internet addiction and its relation to university students’ lifestyles. The sample consisted of 277 Palestinian university students, 143 of which were female and 134 were male. To test the level of Internet addiction among participants, internet addiction test (IAT) Developed by young was administered, while Life Style Personality Inventory (LSPI) was used to identify student’s lifestyles. Results indicated the presence of a mild degree of Internet addiction among participants with (47.4). The results also showed statistically significant differences in Internet addiction based on participants’ place of residence, in favor of students living in camps. Results revealed that the belonging focused and the abuser life styles positively correlated with Internet addiction. This study highlights the importance of conducting further studies concerning the development of counseling and psychotherapy programs that aim to reduce Internet addiction and help students develop healthy life styles.
Pages: 99-109
Keywords: Internet addiction, lifestyles, university students, Palestine
Authors:  Ammar Atiq
File: Internet Addiction and Life Styles in Palestinian University Students (38 downloads)
Title: Internet addiction and achievement motivation among university students
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Abstract: Objectives: The current study aims to test the relationship between Internet addiction and achievement motivation among university students. Methods: A descriptive correlation study was conducted to examine the relationship between Internet addiction and achievement motivation. Participants consisted of 350 university students, selected using a simple random sampling technique, from An-Najah National University in the city of Nablus, Palestine. Results: Findings showed a statistically significant negative correlation between Internet addiction and achievement motivation (r =.24, p < .01). Also, Internet addiction was found to be within mild levels (44.61%) among participants. No significant differences were found in Internet addiction and achievement motivation due to the demographic variables (gender and specialization). Conclusion: Further studies exploring the relationship between Internet addiction and other psychological variables are recommended, to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the current landscape so protective and therapeutic programs can be developed in order to decrease Internet addiction and its negative effects.
Pages: 110-118
Keywords: Internet addiction; Achievement motivation, University students
Authors: Asharaf Sayegh, Niven Hussein, & Dana Bdier
File: Internet addiction and achievement motivation among university students (34 downloads)
Title: Factorial Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Mobile Addiction Scale
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Abstract: Mobile phone addiction has become an increasingly concerning topic and has been affected greatly by the rapid change in technology advancement. While symptoms of mobile phone addiction have been defined in previous literature, their manifestation can vary depending on context. As a result, there is a need to develop culturally driven tools that test for mobile phone addiction. This study explores the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the Arabic mobile addiction scale (AMAS), which was developed using an extensive literature review that included studies conducted in an Arabian context. Research data was collected from 404 university students in Palestine and Jordan to test the AMAS factorial structure using confirmatory factor analysis to confirm five factors:salience/preoccupancy, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, and conflict/negative consequences. Results showed a statistically significant correlation between the AMAS and Young’s (1998) Internet Addiction Test. The AMAS also showed high internal consistency for the total scale and its dimensions.
Pages: 119-139
Keywords: Mobile addiction, university students, mobile addiction scale
Authors: Amjed Abojedi, Fayez Azez Mahamid, & Ola Alhoyan
File: Factorial Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Mobile Addiction Scale (32 downloads)
Title: Maternal tobacco smoking among pregnant Palestinian women: risk for women and newborns
Volume: 3
Issue: 2
Abstract: Aim: To investigate the prevalence and the patterns of maternal smoking during pregnancy and to address specific adverse pregnancy outcomes among women in the north of the West Bank, Palestine. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 2066 pregnant women from the north of the West Bank were recruited to complete a selfadministered questionnaire modified from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. Results: Of the 1853 pregnant women who participated in this study, 8.1% were current smokers (7.2% waterpipe and 3.7% cigarettes), and 11.9% were former smokers (10.9% waterpipe and 2.8% cigarettes). Most of the current smokers (67.5%) and former smokers (78.5%) smoked daily. Pregnant smokers and former smokers were more likely than non-smokers to be exposed to second hand smoke at home, and were more likely to identify as refugees (p value <0.05). The logistic-regression model revealed that current smokers during pregnancy were more likely than nonsmokers to have increased gestational blood lipids and blood pressure, increased blood pressure before pregnancy, premature birth and low birth weight in the newborn (P value< 0.05). Former smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to have increased gestational blood lipids and at least one abortion case (P value <0.05). Conclusion: This study presents tobacco use during pregnancy as a particularly important public health problem. The high rate of maternal smoking during pregnancy and its adverse outcomes on both the mother and the child indicate the urgent need to develop continued and effective cessation strategies. Prevention programs should focus on refugee women, who are at highest risk of smoking.
Pages: 140-155
Keywords: pregnancy, smoking, waterpipe, preterm, Palestine, refugees
Authors: Basma R. Damiri, Ammar A.thabaleh, Alla Salah, Diyaa J. Othman, Lara S. Ishtahyeh, Walaa R. Abughannam, Raghad J. Daas, & Omar A. Safarini
File:  Maternal tobacco smoking among pregnant Palestinian women: risk for women and newborns (51 downloads)